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The causes for feeding and eating issues are complex. In some cases, feeding issues may be associated with a developmental delay or a neurological issue. In other cases, eating and body image issues arise from a combination of societal and individual factors interplaying. We live in a society which gives us messages about the importance of size and shape, we are constantly bombarded with messages that 'we aren’t good enough as we are' and 'the need to try this new diet/product/regime' to rectify this. For some people, specifically young people, being constantly surrounded by these messages and experiencing an individual life stressor such as peer pressure, unrealistic self-expectations, life crisis or transition focusing on their body or what they eat can become a way of coping or getting through these difficult times.
When the body is exposed to periods of restriction, starvation, binging or purging it endures a significant amount of distress. The medical and physical risks are significant even if the eating issue/disorder has only been experienced for a short time. This is especially the case in children and adolescents.
Early identification of an eating issue/ disorder is essential in children and young people since developmental milestones are not yet met, and the presence of an eating issue/disorder during adolescence can have a major impact on brain and body development.
The Feeding, Eating & Body Image Clinic is a sub clinic of AzzA's Child Psychology Clinic that delivers individual, group and family based therapies to children and adolescents, who may be experiencing any type of eating issues/disorders including:
Binge Eating Disorder
Avoidant and Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID)
Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED)
We also take a much wider definition, assisting children, adolescents and young adults who may also have an unhealthy relationship to food or body image. E.g.:
Food is categorised as 'good' or 'bad'
Food control as a coping strategy
Food and/or how we look becomes primary focus of our lives
Taking a broader definition allows us to capture the bigger issues associated with the development and perpetuation of eating issues/disorders.
The clinic is supervised by Senior Psychologist Ms. Amanda Kenyon who holds extensive experience in working with children and young people with eating issues/ disorders delivering individual, group and family based therapies. Given the significant impacts eating disorders have on the physical body, we may also work closely with General Practioners and hospitals.
We use evidence based therapies including Cognitive Behavioural therapy (CBT), Bevioural Therapy, Maudsley family therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to assist children, adolescents and young adults. Our clinic works with you, for you and by your side to assist you and any of your family members' struggle against an eating issue/disorder. At our clinic, you and your loved ones will feel supported and guided throughout the treatment program towards a healthier mind and a healthier lifestyle.
Assessing the underlying reasong behind "picky" or "selective" eating can be tricky when doing so independently. That is why, our therapists working as part of our eating disorders sub clinic are able to assess underlying reasons, provide psychoeducation and further support, intervention and direction as needed. The following provides a helpful summary of the complexity of feeding and eating issues in young and school aged children:
There is significant variance in the development of eating habits, amount of food consumed and the types of food consumed that would fall within 'typical' eating habits of children. Children's eating habits are also very different to adults therefore we cannot use the same criteria to compare. Typical children's eating habits include the following:
As a child develops they pass through a few developmental food milestones as described below:
In order to differentiate typical eating from being something more, we can ask ourselves the following.
Are there emotional signs of distress around food??? – does the child cry or become upset around food, do they feel bad about eating.
Are there physical signs of nutritional deficiencies???- are they falling off their growth curve, do they have low energy or frequent meltdowns when hungry.
Are their social experiences impacted???- are they unable to go to or participate in social gatherings, sleep overs, restaurants, are they teased by their peers or getting excessive attention from family or teachers.
If you answered yes to any of these questions it may be worth further exploring your child's eating.
Feeding and eating disorders can begin for a range of reasons as summarised below:
1. Medical – allergies, reflux, eosinophilic esophagitis (allergy related to erosion of esophagus), severe constipation, cardiorespiratory or muscular conditions effecting breathing (congenital heart defects, chronic lung disease, muscular dystrophy). All these conditions will make eating more difficult for a child.
2. Oral motor impairments – any issue that makes it difficult to get food into the mouth, chew, breathe, swallow or sit up can be a reason to avoid food or food groups. For eg: cleft palate, malformation of the trachea/oesophagus, dental issues, enlarged adenoids or tonsils or tongue tie. Also any jaw malfunction which impacts coordinated movements of the tongue and cheek, Poor chewing technique (biting and chewing with front teeth only) or limited movement of tongue (especially if unable to move side to side).
3. Sensory processing disorder – Means that sensory input is experienced in a more intense or dulled way. Children may crave certain sensory experiences (spice, sourness, crunch) or be unaware of the sensation of food in their mouth. Some children with SPD will only eat uniform textures (all smooth or all crunchy).
Examples of sensory presentations:
4. Temperament/Mood – Children with feeding or eating disorders are often highly verbal and intelligent. They tend to be independent natured and want to do things 'on my terms, in my own way'. This can lead to them becoming increasingly frustrated when things don't work. They often feel and express intense emotions. They also tend to be sensitive to their parents agenda and pressure leading to increased risk of experiencing anxiety. Food refusal also links to shyness, emotionality and irritability. (Children with this independent temperament also often have toilet training issues and constipation for similar reasons).
5. Negative Experiences – If in the past eating or feeling hungry has resulted in an uncomfortable or scary experience, such as choking, food poisoning, vomiting, forced feeding or illness, appetite can decrease.
By: Amanda Kenyon, Psychologist at ACPC, Adapted from resource: Helping your Child with Extreme Picky Eating. By Katja Rowell.
The following lists some of the early warning signs of disordered eating:
What to do if you are concerned?
A – ask to speak with the person privately
C – confront with concern and care
T – tell them what you see and why you are concerned
N – never continue with the conversation if it becomes too emotional
O – use conversation as an opportunity to learn about the persons experience
W – when you finish the conversation put a plan in place
Please seek professional opinion if you are concerned about your child/teen.
For any enquiries about our services please do not hesitate to contact our clinic.
Research into the effects of Maudsley have shown that it is an effective outpatient treatment particularly for adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.
The principals of Maudsley therapy are that the family play a vital role to the restoration of weight in those affected by eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa. The family, and in particular, the parents play a pivotal and active role in treatment.
Maudsley treatment is broken down into 3 distinct phases.
When someone is underweight (or has experienced rapid weight loss) their body is under enormous physical stress and they are at risk of experiencing a number of medical complications. In addition to this when someone is underweight (or experiencing rapid weight loss) their ability to engage in 'cognitive' work to address the underlying factors of the eating disorder are diminished. Therefore weight restoration is deemed the most important and first step in treatment to medically stabilise the person and allow for the next phases of treatment to occur. During this phase of treatment the control of eating (what is eaten, how much) is given to the parents in order achieve the first goal.
Once weight restoration is achieved and the adolescent is no longer medically unstable, control over eating is gradually handed back to the adolescent.
Phase 3 is initiated when the adolescent is able to maintain their own weight at an ideal weight and self-starvation has ceased. Treatment begins to focus on regaining the parts of life that have been taken away and effected by the eating disorder, such as school, social and family life.
As the Senior psychologist of the Feeding, Eating and Body Image Clinic, Ms. Amanda Kenyon is a qualified eating disorders therapist who has completed basic training in Maudsley Family Based Therapy. Please do not hesitate to contact our clinic directly for any queries.
Our goal is to ensure your advocacy needs are met through the process of continuous engagement and genuine understanding of your needs